"Accurate and discerning, ranging over the vast literature...
An ideal introduction to the subject for any student of the Holocaust,
and an authoritative summary for the expert."
Yehuda Bauer, Institute of Contemporary Jewry,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Pages 75 - 78
In one form or another, the debate over responsibility for the Final
Solution echoes through the literature on Germany's satellites - Slovakia,
Croatia, Rumania, Hungary, and Bulgaria. In each case there were German
demands to participate in the Final Solution. Each satellite responded
differently, sometimes with dramatically different results... In both Slovakia
and Croatia, countries that owed their very existence to the Third
Reich, the Germans set up aggressive, extreme right-wing conservatives
- the clerical corporatist father Jozef Tiso in Bratislava in 1939, and
the terrorist Ustasha leader Ante Pavelic' in Zagreb in 1941. Each was
bent on establishing a strongly authoritarian, nationalist regime in which
there was no place for Jews...
All five satellites moved against the Jews on their own, issuing
definitions and discriminatory legislation and confiscating Jewish
property... With the exception of Bulgaria, there seems little doubt that
powerful indigenous forces accounted almost entirely for the wave of anti-Jewish
measures that continued up to the German attack on the Soviet Union...
The overall level of violence was highest
in Croatia, where Pavelic's Ustasha
movement devised the most thoroughly totalitarian state of any satellite
and pursued a merciless, bloody assault on the country's two million Serbs...
In Croatia, many thousands of Jews were marked
for annihilation within the country - part of the vicious war against
Serbs, Gypsies, and others deemed outsiders. Camps run by the Ustasha
worked thousands to death; other perished from typhus and terrible abuse.
Shooting parties roamed the country, killing presumed enemies of the new
Croatian state. A third of the Jewish population of about thirty thousand
may thus have been killed before the end of 1941. There were already many
thousands of victims of the Ustasha regime when Zagreb agreed to deportations
in the summer of 1942, and the Final Solution had already been in effect
for some time...
The same author talks also about the suffering of Serbs and Jews
in the Nazi